PERIODONTAL DIAGNOSIS

IMI Clinic

Diagnosis of periodontitis

Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection that attacks the periodontium – the tissues supporting the tooth, which consist of the gums, bone, root cementum and periodontal ligament.

Before starting any sort of treatment it is essential to make a definititive diagnosis of the health conditions of the patient’s oral cavity. In doing so it is possible to draw up an accurate clinical picture and study a personalised treatment plan to successfully treat the patient.

IMI Clinic use innovative diagnostic systems and tests based on biomolecular and genetic technology that allow clear and precise identification of  the health conditions of the patient’s mouth and any predisposition to the onset of periodontal disease. This makes it possible to draw up a programme of appropriate prevention treatment.

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Gum disease: the enzymatic test

The test is extremely simple, painless and immediately able to detect the degenerative processes of periodontal and peri-implant tissues.

The enzymatic test for the prevention of gum disease uses the high sensitivity of the aMMP-8 enzyme, which is present in high quantities in the early stages of inflammation of the periodontium.

In fact it is an early indicator of tissue damage in the oral cavity and allows the specialist to take a prompt action to prevent periodontal and peri-implant damages: depending on the test result it will be possible to calibrate the entire diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for the patient.

Together with the microbiological test and periodontal risk test, the enzymatic test is now the most advanced method to prevent periodontitis and take the correct measures from the very beginning of this inflammation.

Diagnosis of periodontitis: microbiological and genetic tests

The diagnostic procedure conducts microbiological and genetic analysis (inserire link a sezione analisi) and takes X-rays (including a panoramic, cone beam and status test), photos and models of the mouth, as well as periodontal probing.

In every patient showing signs of periodontal infection or inflammation, the microbiological and genetic tests are always the first prcoess to be carried out. They identify and quantify the bacteria causing the infection and the patient’s individual degree of susceptibility to periodontal disease.

For the microbiological tests, a total of five sites are selected inside the mouth to represent the condition of the patient’s oral cavity. Sterile cones are inserted into each site in order to reveal the quantity and quality of the infection.

As far as the genetic analyses are concerned, a swab is wiped around the mucous membranes inside the patient’s cheek, tongue, gums and opening of the mouth for at least 30 seconds to collect exfoliated cells. The subsequent analysis will allow us to precisely establish the patient’s susceptibility to periodontal disease.

Periodontal disease: the patient’s radiological status

A panoramic is an X-ray that provides a complete image of the dental arches and bone structures supporting them. This exam gives us an overall evaluation of the clinical case, the position and size of the paranasal sinuses, the presence of all dental elements, and the possible presence of any bone rarefactions.

The radiological status consists of a collection of endoral X-rays (with low ray emissions) that group together two or three teeth per X-ray. These X-rays are necessary to detect the possible presence of tooth decay or lesions at an apical level.

periodontal disease dentists

These types of X-ray (OPT and status) represent a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional structure and are not able to provide precise information about the true measurements   of the teeth and the relationship that may exist between the lesion and the anatomical structures nearby.
For this reason it is vital that we conduct a cone beam computerised tomography which will provide a three-dimensional view very similar to that of a CAT scan, but without exposing the patient to large amounts of radiation.
Thanks to this, it is also possible to study the tooth-bone volumetric relations and the endodontic lesions.

Study models, photos and an impression of the patient’s mouth are taken to study the occlusal relationships between the two dental arches in order to document the pre and post-treatment case.

Periodontal probing

Periodontal probing is an instrumental exam carried out with a probe to measure the periodontal pockets, the extent of the receding gums and the tooth mobility in order to have an initial picture of the mouth and the severity of the patient’s periodontal disease.

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