IMI Clinic

Halitosis – aka bromopnea – is more commonly called “bad breath” and describes a bad smell in the mouth. Commonly, this ailment can be caused by different factors, even interconnected, but you must never forget that halitosis is one of the most important signals of periodontitis, or pyorrhea.

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The mouth, where the halitosis develops, represents an anatomo-functional entity that is both the first tract of the respiratory system and of the digestive system: this means that the air coming out of the mouth is made up of the air that comes from the oro and nasopharyngeal area, the trachea, and the lungs. Sometimes, the smell of your breath is also conditioned by the contents of your stomach. Halitosis can be either temporary or pure. The former is not an actual ailment and usually happens at certain times of the day (such as the morning), while the second is bromopnea proper.


The causes of halitosis can be oral or non-oral.

Among the oral causes of bad breath there are:

  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontitis
  • Peri-implantitis
  • Tongue patina and/or anatomical alterations
  • Cavities
  • Pulpitis
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Xerostomia
  • Alterations of the mucosa

Non-oral causes of halitosis include:

  • Otorhinolaryngological illnesses
  • Gastrointestinal illnesses such as hiatal hernia or Helicobacter pylori infections
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hepatic diseases
  • Kidney diseases
  • Metabolic or systemic diseases
  • Bronchial and pulmonary diseases
  • Ketogenic food, smoking, alcohol, and prescription drugs


In particular, IMI Clinic focuses on halitosis as a symptom of periodontal disease (aka periodontitis or pyorrhea). It is a signal you should not underestimate and that requires a more in depth analysis.

To evaluate the best approach, it is a good idea to establish the cause of the halitosis with certainty. The specialists of IMI Clinic will be happy to accompany you in a highly specialized and technological diagnosis, entirely aimed to the complete health of the mouth.

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